on Facebookon Twitter on YoutubeRSS
Blog & Articles
Nootropics & Smart Drugs

Analgesic activity of piracetam: effect on cytokine production and oxidative stress.

 
Analgesic activity of piracetam: effect on cytokine production and oxidative stress.

Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs used to improve cognitive impairment. However, recent studies suggest that piracetam can have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammatory pain is the result of a process that depends on neutrophil migration, cytokines and prostanoids release and oxidative stress. We analyze whether piracetam has anti-nociceptive effects and its mechanisms. Per oral pretreatment with piracetam reduced in a dose-dependent manner the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant. Piracetam also diminished carrageenin-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Piracetam presented analgesic effects as post-treatment and local paw treatment. The analgesic mechanisms of piracetam were related to inhibition of carrageenin- and TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β as well as prevention of carrageenin-induced decrease of reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability and free radical scavenging ability in the paw. These results demonstrate that piracetam presents analgesic activity upon a variety of inflammatory stimuli by a mechanism dependent on inhibition of cytokine production and oxidative stress. Considering its safety and clinical use for cognitive function, it is possible that piracetam represents a novel perspective of analgesic.

Piracetam Studies

 

Other Racetams

Other Racetams

 

Scientific Studies & Papers

Author of Study or Paper
Navarro SA, Serafim KG, Mizokami SS, Hohmann MS, Casagrande R, Verri WA Jr.
Source
Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR, Brazil
Date Published
2013

Piracetam Supplements

Caballo  
 
4.0
truBrain  
 
4.3

Why Nootropics?